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'n Interpretasie van die emosies van Jesus in Johannes 11:33-38

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dc.contributor Tolmie, F.
dc.creator Meyer, Johanna Adriana Maria
dc.date 2018-08-30T11:27:04Z
dc.date 2018-08-30T11:27:04Z
dc.date 2017-10
dc.date.accessioned 2018-08-30T22:39:58Z
dc.date.available 2018-08-30T22:39:58Z
dc.identifier http://hdl.handle.net/11660/9190
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/11660/9190
dc.description English: This study is an attempt at determining the best interpretation of the emotions of Jesus at the grave of Lazarus. It is done by means of a study of the Wirkungsgeschichte of John 11:33-38, to determine the different interpretations of theologians through the ages. By applying certain criteria to these interpretations, an attempt was made to determine the best interpretation of the emotions of Jesus, with special reference to the words ἐμβριμάομαι, ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτόν and ἐδάκρυσεν. From the Wirkungsgeschichte (Chapter 2) was deduced that the emotions of Jesus in John 11:33-38 were interpreted in generally three ways, namely as anger and agitation, or as distress (he was deeply moved), or as a combination of emotions, which could include all of the above. The reasons for interpreting these emotions in a specific way, were often also coloured by the context and world perspective of the interpreters. One example in this regard is the Stoic influence that can be detected in the interpretations of Diadochus of Photiki, Cyril of Alexandria and Augustine of Hippo. The reasons for the emotions of Jesus, as seen by theologians, included the following: - Grief and anger because of the misery caused by sin and wrath, aimed directly against Satan and death; - Empathy towards those in distress and grief; - Anger caused by the unbelief and lack of understanding of the mourners, of who he was and what he came to do on earth (especially the unbelief, hypocrisy and antagonism of “the Jews”); - The realization of the immanence of his “hour” that implied his uplifting on the cross; - Indignation towards Mary and Martha for their reproach that he did not come earlier. In Chapter 3, these reasons were weighed against the following criteria to determine the best interpretation for the emotions of Jesus in John 11:33-38: - The way in which the Judean and Hellenistic world thought about emotions; - the meanings that Greek concepts like ἐμβριμήαομαι, ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτόν and ἐδάκρυσεν normally took on in the New Testament and other Greek literature of the first century; - how the portrayal of the emotions of Jesus fits into the narrative of John 11 and the theology of the Gospel of John. In Chapter 4, the conclusion was reached that the best interpretation of the emotions of Jesus according to the way in which these concepts were used in the Old Testament, New Testament and extra-Biblical literature, are as follows: - ἐμβριμήαομαι points towards anger; - ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτόν means to be stirred up (disturbed) or to experience an inner shuddering which could be visible on the outside; - ἐδάκρυσεν means to weep silent tears, possibly out of grief and empathy with those that are grieving. The following conclusions were made with respect to the reasons for Jesus’ emotions: - A deep compassion and empathy for those who are grieving, as is seen by his tears at the grave (John 11:35); - Anger and agitation over the unbelief of the people surrounding the grave (including the sisters of the deceased and his disciples) and especially over the rejection, unbelief and hostility of the Jews; - A deep disturbance because he was already experiencing the cross – a disturbance that cannot be seen apart from his love for his Father and for the world, and which reaches a culmination point in John 12:27 with the realization that his “hour” has come.
dc.description Afrikaans: In hierdie studie is aan die hand van die Wirkungsgeschichte van Johannes 11:33-38 en met die aanwending van drie kriteria, gepoog om die beste interpretasie te verkry van die emosies van Jesus by die graf van Lasarus, veral soos uitgedruk in die begrippe ἐμβριμάομαι, ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτόν en ἐδάκρυσεν. Uit die Wirkungsgeschichte (Hoofstuk 2) het geblyk dat eksegete die emosies hierbo op veral drie maniere verstaan het, naamlik όf as woede en ontsteltenis (ontroering), of as droefheid, of as ’n kombinasies van ontsteltenis, ontroering en droefheid. Die redes wat daarvoor aangevoer is, het gewissel en was dikwels kenmerkend van die tydvak waarin die interpretasie gedoen is. So kan byvoorbeeld duidelik gesien word dat die antieke kommentators, byvoorbeeld. Diadochus van Photiki, Cyrillus van Alexandria en Augustinus van Hippo, nog onder die invloed van die Stoïsyne geskryf het. Die redes vir die emosies van Jesus soos deur teoloë gesien, het die volgende ingesluit: - droefheid en toorn as gevolg van die ellende as gevolg van sonde en woede wat direk op Satan en die dood gerig is; - empatie met hulle wat ly; - toorn oor die ongeloof en onbegrip van die roubeklaers oor wie Hy was en wat Hy kom doen het en veral die ongeloof en geveinsdheid van “die Jode”; - die besef van die nabyheid van sy “uur” wat sy verhoging aan die kruis ingehou het; en - verontwaardiging teenoor Maria en Marta vir hulle verwyt omdat Hy nie eerder gekom het nie. Hierdie moontlike redes is in Hoofstuk 3 teen die volgende kriteria geweeg om die beste interpretasie vir Jesus se emosies te bepaal: - Die manier waarop in die eerste-eeuse Judese en Hellenistiese wêreld oor emosies gedink is; - Die betekenisse wat Griekse begrippe soos ἐμβριμήαομαι, ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτòν en ἐδάκρυσεν normaalweg in die Nuwe Testament en ander Griekse literatuur van daardie tyd gehad het; - Tot watter mate die uitbeelding van Jesus se emosies inpas by die strekking van die narratief van Johannes 11 en by die teologie van die Johannes-evangelie. Daar is in Hoofstuk 4 tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die beste interpretasie van die emosie van Jesus volgens die wyse waarop die begrippe in die Ou Testament, Nuwe Testament en buite-Bybelse literatuur gebruik is, soos volg is: - ἐμβριμήαομαι wys heen na toorn; - ἐτάραξεν ἑαυτόν na ontsteltenis of beroering of siddering van die gemoed wat na buite sigbaar kan wees.; en - ἐδάκρυσεν na Jesus se ween wat droefheid en empatie kan dui. Wat die redes vir sy emosies betref, is die volgende afleidings gemaak: - ’n Diepe deernis vir hulle wat ly, soos wat gesien kan word uit sy trane by die graf (Johannes 11:35); - toorn en ontsteltenis oor die ongeloof van die mense wat hier teenwoordig was, insluitende die susters, sy dissipels en veral “die Jode”, vanweë hulle verwerping, ongeloof en vyandskap; en - ’n diepe ontstemdheid omdat Hy hier reeds die pyn en godverlatenheid van die kruis begin beleef – ’n ontsteltenis wat nie losgemaak kan word van sy liefde vir sy Vader en vir die wêreld nie en wat ’n kulminasiepunt bereik in Johannes 12:27 met die besef dat sy uur aangebreek het.
dc.language af
dc.publisher University of the Free State
dc.rights University of the Free State
dc.subject History of reception
dc.subject Emotions
dc.subject Cultural anthropology
dc.subject ἐμβριμάομαι
dc.subject τάρασσω
dc.subject δάκρυω
dc.subject Faith versus unbelief
dc.subject Resurrection
dc.subject Jesus’ “hour”
dc.subject Dissertation (M.Div. (Old and New Testament Studies))--University of the Free State, 2017
dc.title 'n Interpretasie van die emosies van Jesus in Johannes 11:33-38
dc.type Dissertation


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