Antimicrobial and coagulation potential of Moringa oleifera seed powder coupled with sand filtration for treatment of bath wastewater from public senior high schools in Ghana

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The use of natural plant extracts for treatment of water in some parts of the world has been recorded throughout human history. An example is the use of Moringa oleifera in water purification due to its coagulation properties. However, the efficiency of the treatment systems largely depends on the design of the system and its operation. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of Moringa oleifera seed powder coupled with sand filtration in treating greywater from public senior high schools in the Bolgatanga Municipality and Kasena Nankana West District in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Microbial and physico-chemical properties of greywater collected monthly from the senior high schools was analyzed. Moringa oleifera seed powder was added to raw greywater and then filtered through a sand filter bed. Physico-chemical and microbial parameters of the treated greywater were then analyzed. Mean turbidity, TDS, TSS, T. phosphate and T. nitrogen of the raw greywater was 312.5 76.58 NTU, 445.6 86.77 mg/L, 160.0 28.68 mg/L, 89.3 7.76 mg/L and 30.19 3.63 mg/L respectively whiles average BOD, COD, E. coli and Total coliform were 1032.5 252.40 mg/L, 1736.0 431.59 mg/L, 84.75 x 106 94.01 x 106 N/100ml and 184.25 x 10s 181 x 106 N/100ml respectively. After treatment, there was percentage reduction in turbidity (98.14%), TDS (72.7%), TSS (98.9%), T. phosphate (75.64%), T. nitrogen (43.11%), Total coliform and E. coli (>99%) were recorded. Turbidity was 0.1 NTU and did not meet the WHO standard for drinking water but T. hardness, E. coli and pH was in line with the WHO limit for drinking water. However, BOD increased, and this could be attributed to the significant protein content in the seed of Moringa oleifera. Moringa oleifera seed powder coupled with sand filtration demonstrated the antimicrobial and coagulative potential as turbidity and E. coli of the raw bath greywater from the senior high schools reduced by >98% and >99.99% respectively after treatment
Moringa oleifera, Physico-chemical parameters, Microbial parameters, Environmental analysis, Environmental engineering, University of Energy & Natural Resources, ACE: Energy and Environmental Sustainability, Ghana, Power