Human dietary exposure to metals in the Niger delta region, Nigeria: Health risk assessment

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The contamination profile and the human health risk assessment of various heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb) in vegetable oils, palm oils, butter and shea butter purchased from the Nigerian market were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses including the principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and heat map visualization were used to evaluate correlation, similarity and source of metals. Dietary intake and dermal absorption through the application in skin were also assessed. The heavy metals 5th and 95th percentile interval range (in mg/kg) were 0.003–0.208, 0.003–0.392, 0.003–1.344, 0.003–0.369 and 0.006–0.531 for Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb, respectively. Concentrations of Cr and Mn were significantly different across sample categories, being the levels of Mn and Ni positively correlated in both oil and butter samples. The result of PCA, HCA and heat map revealed the profile of heavy metals in oils was different from that of butters, with Pb mainly associated to oils, and Cd, Cr, Mn and Ni to butters. In some samples, the international maximum levels for Cd, Ni and Pb in edible oils were exceeded. Cadmium and Pb dietary intake through Nigerian oils and butters should not be considered negligible for human health protection.
metals, Oils and butters, Dietary intake, Dermal absorption, Nigeria, Anthonett N. Ezejiofor, Glad Uzah, ACE: Public Health and Toxicological Research, ACE-PUTOR, University of Port Harcourt