ItemAdapting the QUEFTS model to predict attainable yields when training data are characterized by imperfect management(Field Crops Research, 2021-03-31) Ravensbergen, Arie Pieter Paulus; Chamberlin, JordanUnderstanding yield responses to nutrient application is a key input for extension advice and strategic agricultural investments in developing countries. A commonly used model for yield responses to nutrient inputs in tropical smallholder farming systems is QUEFTS (QUantitative Evaluation of the Fertility of Tropical Soils). While QUEFTS has a strong conceptual foundation, a key assumption is that nutrients are the only limiting factors. One implication of this is the required assumption of ‘perfect management’. This may be problematic in the application of QUEFTS in smallholder farming systems with a wide variety of yield limiting factors. In a previous study, QUEFTS was calibrated using farm trials in two major maize production zones in Nigeria. To reduce observed variability in correlations between estimated soil nutrient (N, P, K) supply and soil parameters (e.g. soil organic carbon, soil pH; step 1 of QUEFTS) a Mahalanobis distance method was used to remove data points not adhering to expected correlations. In this study, we assessed an alternative approach: can the QUEFTS model be adapted to fit smallholder farming systems and associated variation in management? Using 676 observations from the same nutrient omission trials in two major maize production zones in Nigeria, we compare a standard linear regression approach with a quantile regression approach to calibrate QUEFTS. We find that under the standard linear regression approach, there is a poor relation between predicted and observed yields. Using quantile regression, however, QUEFTS performed better at predicting attainable yields – defined as the 90th percentile of observed yields – under a wide variety of production conditions. Our results indicate that using quantile regression as a way to predict attainable yields, is a useful alternative implementation of QUEFTS in smallholder farming systems with high variability in management and other characteristics. ItemInvestigating the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the stability, bioaccessibility, and biological activities of baobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit polyphenolics(LWT, 2021) Ismail, Balarabe B.; Guo, Mingming; Pu, YunfengBaobab (Adansonia digitata) fruit had received growing attention for its myriad nutritional and medicinal benefits, including those from its polyphenol-rich profile and powerful antioxidant activity. The current study evaluated the bioaccessibility of phenolic constituents and antioxidant capacity of baobab fruit pulp (BFP) and its byproduct, the baobab fruit shell (BFS), upon in vitro digestion. In general, the in vitro digestion reduced phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity; however, several flavonoids, particularly quercetin, proanthocyanidin, proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 were highly bioaccessible. Specifically, a significant increase in the bioaccessibility of proanthocyanidins (173%) in BFS was observed following gastric digestion, possibly due to hydrolysis of proanthocyanidin isomers. Moreover, a significantly higher bioaccessibility of proanthocyanidin B2 (170%) and quercetin (304%) in BFP, and proanthocyanidin (363%) in BFS was also observed following intestinal digestion probably due to pancreatin effect on the complex food matrix or the depolymerisation of insoluble proanthocyanidin and quercetin conjugates induced by the increase in pH. A considerable α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition in all samples (>50% inhibition) were observed following the in vitro digestion. Hence, both BFP and BFS are good sources of bio accessible polyphenolics that could be utilised as ingredients in functional foods. ItemIncreasing temperature elevates the variation and spatial differentiation of pesticide tolerance in a plant pathogen(Evolutionary Applications, 2021-01-13) Lurwanu, Yahuza; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wu, E-Jiao,Climate change and pesticide resistance are two of the most imminent challenges human society is facing today. Knowledge of how the evolution of pesticide resistance may be affected by climate change such as increasing air temperature on the planet is important for agricultural production and ecological sustainability in the future but is lack in scientific literatures reported from empirical research. Here, we used the azoxystrobin-Phytophthora infestans interaction in agricultural systems to investigate the contributions of environmental temperature to the evolution of pesticide resistance and infer the impacts of global warming on pesticide efficacy and future agricultural production and ecological sustainability. We achieved this by comparing azoxystrobin sensitivity of 180 P. infestans isolates sampled from nine geographic locations in China under five temperature schemes ranging from 13 to 25°C. We found that local air temperature contributed greatly to the difference of azoxystrobin tolerance among geographic populations of the pathogen. Both amongpopulation and within-population variations in azoxystrobin tolerance increased as experimental temperatures increased. We also found that isolates with higher azoxystrobin tolerance adapted to a broader thermal niche. These results suggest that global warming may enhance the risk of developing pesticide resistance in plant pathogens and highlight the increased challenges of administering pesticides for effective management of plant diseases to support agricultural production and ecological sustainability under future thermal conditions. ItemEvaluation of Traits’ Performance Contributing to Drought Tolerance in Sorghum(Agronomy, 2021-08-26) Mwamahonje, Andekelile; Eleblu, John Saviour Yaw; Ofori, Kwadwo: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is an important food crop for people in semi-arid Africa. The crop is affected by post-flowering drought; therefore, the study was conducted to screen traits contributing to drought tolerance using BC2F4 sorghum genotypes in stressed and unstressed water conditions in a split-plot design. Water stress (0 mm/day) was applied at post-flowering to plant maturity in water-stressed treatment. The genotype SE438 produced the highest grain yield (2.65 ton ha−1 ) in water-stressed environment and NA316C yielded highest (3.42 ton ha−1 ) under well-watered (7 mm/day) environment. There were significant differences of most traits evaluated at p < 0.01 across environments. The mean squares of traits for genotypes by environments revealed interactions at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01. The indices geometric mean productivity (GMP) and mean productivity (MP) were highly correlated with yield under well-watered (YP) and water-stressed condition (YS) and each other. The first principal axis (PC1) explained 59.1% of the total variation. It is the best indicator of yield potential and drought tolerance of sorghum genotypes in this study. Therefore, further improvement is needed to strengthen drought tolerance and yield in sorghum. ItemProduction and Quality Evaluation of Cookies from Wheat, Almond Seed and Carrot Flour Blends(International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology, 2020-10-30) Guyih, Mulak Desmond; Dinnah, Ahure; Eke, Mike OjotuCookies are a form of baked food which is usually sweet. Wheat, almond and carrot flours were used to produce cookies in the following blend ratios: 100:0:0, 90:10:0, 90:0:10, 80:15:5, 70:20:10 and were labeled A, B, C, D and E. The control sample A was without treatment. Analyses of antinutrients, functional properties, physical, proximate, minerals, and sensory attributes were carried out using standard methods. All the results show statistical difference. The functional properties of flours: bulk density, WAC, OAC, swelling capacity and foaming capacity ranged respectively from 0.71 to 0.81 g/cm3 , 1.60 to 4.31 g/mL, 1.10 to 3.67 g/L, 2.30 to 2.66 mL, 5.10 to 6.62%. The antinutritional properties: oxalate, tannin and cyanide content of flours ranged from 0.03 to 0.14 mg/100g, 0.18 to 0.64%, 0.12 to 0.13%, phytate content was not detected. The spread ratio of cookies ranged from 3.32 in sample A to 4.04 in sample E. The proximate composition of cookies: moisture, ash, fiber, fat, protein and carbohydrate content ranged respectively: from 6.42 to 8.04%, 1.62 to 2.72%, 0.36 to 0.97%, 1.94 to 6.02%, 6.14 to 10.23% and 71.27 to 81.18%. The energy value of cookies ranged from 371.22 to 391 kCal. The mineral composition ranged from 185.77 to 230.16 mg/100g for calcium, 877.62 to 984 mg/100g for potassium, 5.75 to 7.12 mg/100g for zinc, 58.96 mg/100g to 77.16 mg/100g for magnesium and 47.03 to 56.12 for sodium. All cookies samples were generally accepted by sensory panelist. The study provides evidence that wheat, almond and carrot are suitable for cookies production and at optimal substitution levels of 70:20:10 and 80:20:10. ItemNon-Wettable Surfaces – From Natural to Artificial and Applications: A Critical Review(Rev. Adhesion Adhesives,, 2019) Tyowua, Andrew Terhemen; Targema, Msugh; Emmanuel Etim Ubuo, Emmanuel EtimNon-wettable surfaces have recently attracted significant attention due to their enormous promising applications. These applications are primarily due to their ability to repel liquid drops and remain unwetted. In this review, the various names used in describing non-wettable surfaces are given. This is followed by the fundamental theories of wetting. Natural non-wettable surfaces are then considered, along with their importance. Thereafter, we discuss how artificial non-wettable (biomimetic) surfaces are prepared. Next, the basic properties of non-wettable surfaces, which make them promising candidates for a wide range of applications, are discussed. Furthermore, the various applications of non-wettable surfaces are discussed, with references made to review articles with specific coverage of named applications. We conclude with a summary, challenges limiting the application of non-wettable surfaces to some real-life situations and possible suggestions to mitigate them as well as opportunities for future work. ItemModelling the Impact of Key Pests of Watermelon on its Performance Using Linear Regression Models(Walailak J Sci & Tech, 2020-06-05) Emmanuel, OKRIKATA; OGUNWOLU, Emmanuel Oludele; ODIAKA, Ngozi IfeomaDespite the economic, health, and nutritional values of watermelon, insect pests remain a key limitation to its production globally. However, there has, hardly been any research that has statistically modeled the impact of insect pests on its performance. Therefore, this study aims to determine the relationship between the performance of watermelon and the density of its key pests with the aid of correlation and linear regression models, thereby presenting models for forecasting crop performance vis-à-vis pest density for optimum pest management. Data were collected from 40 m2 plots grouped into 4 replicates (10 plots/replicate) in field experiments (arranged in a randomized complete block design) in the early- and late-sown crops of 2016 and 2017 in the Research Farm of Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria. Plant survival rate (%) negatively and significantly (P≤ 0.05) correlated with each of mean number leaf-feeding beetles (r = −0.80, R2 = 63.5 %, Y = 92.023 – 3.145x; r = −0.79, R2 = 62.1 %, Y = 95.986 – 5.975x), A. gossypiidensity (r = −0.67, R2 = 44.9 %, Y= 184.048 – 50.444x; r = -0.65, R2 = 42.4 %, Y= 131.852 – 14.618x), and B tabacidensity (r = −0.67, R2 = 45.2 %, Y= 188.832 – 11.138x; r = −0.66, R2 = 43.3 %, Y= 178.738 – 3.701x) in both the early- and late-sown crop of 2016, respectively, with a similar trend in those of 2017. All parameters significantly (P ≤ 0.05) fitted the linear regression model. Densities of all major pests consistently correlated negatively and significantly with fruit yield. Student’s t-test detected significant differences between the early- and late-sown crops of both years. We therefore conclude that watermelon experiences multiple pest infestations whose compositions and intensities vary between seasons, and that their influence on agronomic performance, as shown by the coefficient of determination (R2) values (which were indicative of the reliability of the models with respect to the effect of pests on crop performance), were largely close or > 50 %. ItemEffect of Watermelon Rind (Citrullus lanatus) Addition on the Chemical and Sensory Quality of Sorghum Based Mumu(AFSJ, 2019-08-21) Gbaa, S. T.; Ahemen, S. A.; Eke, M. O.Aims: The aim was to evaluate the effect of watermelon rind addition on chemical and sensory properties of sorghum based mumu. Study Design: The experimental design used was the complete randomized design (CRD) and the Data obtained was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s Least Significant Difference(LSD) test to compare treatment means; differences was considered significant at 95% (P≤0.05) (SPSS Version 21 software). Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, between June 2018 and March 2019. Methodology: Sorghum-based mumu was prepared from composite flours of 85:15, 75:15, 70:15 and 65:15% roasted sorghum flour and roasted partially defatted groundnut flour respectively and included with 0, 10, 15 and 20% watermelon rind powder respectively which were known as sample A, B, C and D accordingly and sample A was used as control. Subsequently, proximate composition, selected minerals and vitamins were determined using standard methods. Sensory evaluation was also conducted. Results: The addition of watermelon rind powder to sorghum-based mumu showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) on the protein, ash and fibre. Their values ranged from 13.67 to 15.97%, 1.99 to 3.17% and 1.33 to 1.67% respectively, while moisture, crude fat and carbohydrate decrease with values ranged from 12.35 to 10.70%, 2.07 to 1.94% and 68.59 to 66.55% respectively. The energy values ranged from 347 to 348.76 Kcal/100 g). The results obtained from different minerals tested ranged as follows for phosphorus (124.10 to 155.67mg/100g), for magnesium (1.36 to 2.90 mg/100 g), for calcium (12.28 to26.67 mg/100 g) and for potassium (59.29 to 72.79 mg/100 g). Vitamins ranged from A (14.93 to 15.25 ug/100 g), C (5.97 to 8.12mg/100g), B1 (0.43 to 0.54mg/100g) and B2 (0.01 to 0.13 mg/100 g). Sensory evaluation results showed that the acceptability of the samples decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with increased level of watermelon rind powder. Conclusion: The sorghum -based mumu supplemented with watermelon powder at 10% and 15% should be adopted since their sensory scores were high and the nutrient content significantly increased. ItemGrowth performance and in vivo nutrients digestibility of growing Yankasa Ram Lambs fed diets containing graded levels of sesame residue(J. Anim. Health Prod., 2021-02-17) . Adeola, Emmanuel A.; Garba, YusufThe study was carried out to evaluate the effect of including sesame residue (SR) in the diets of Yankasa ram lambs on feed intake, body weight gain, and nutrients digestibility. Twelve Yankasa ram lambs (initial body weight of 20.08 ± 3.08kg) were allotted to three dietary treatments containing 0, 20 and 30% SR (A, B and C) respectively. A completely randomized design was used for the study which lasted twelve weeks. The results revealed that animals fed 30% inclusion level had higher dry matter, nitrogen free extract and ether extract intakes, which varied among the treatments. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibilities were higher for the lambs fed 0% SR. Inclusion of sesame residue up to 30% in the diet of growing Yankasa lambs improved nutrients intake without adverse effects on growth performance. It is thus recommended that sesame residue could be incorporated in the diets of growing Yankasa lambs at 30% inclusion level for reduced feed cost in Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria ItemUtilization of moringa oleifera seeds flour and starches of white yam, trifoliate yam and sweet potato in cookies(International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 2021-07-14) Obioma, Okereke Goodluck; Doshima, Igbabul Bibiana; Ikya, JosephNative starches extracted from selected roots and tubers (white yam, trifoliate yam and sweet potato) were physically and chemically modified through heat moisture treatment and acetylation respectively while nutritious flour was processed from Moringa oleifera seeds. Composite flours of 85% wheat flour, 10% native/modified starch and 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour blends were developed for production of composite cookies. Nutritional compositions and baking properties of these composite cookies were investigated against those of control samples (i.e. 100% wheat flour cookies). Nutritionally, composite cookies were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control cookies while in terms of baking properties, the control cookies did not significantly (p<0.05) differ from composite cookies. Cookies sample NSPC (i.e. made from composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% native sweet potato starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) took lead positions in crude fat content (19.30%), protein content (13.25%), calcium content (121.95 mg/100g), iron content (3.75 mg/100g), vitamin A content (4.910 µg/g), vitamin B1 content (0.079 mg/100g), vitamin B2 content (0.112 mg/100g), vitamin B3 content (0.580 mg/100g), vitamin B6 (0.480 mg/100g) and vitamin C content (14.710 mg/100g). Though NTYC (cookies of composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% native trifoliate yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) and CTYC (cookies of composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% acetylated white yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) shared the highest moisture content of 8.20%, NTYC had highest values in ash content (2.60%) and spread factor (62.37)) and toddled in carbohydrate content (55.45%). CWYC (i.e. cookies of composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% acetylated white yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) had best values in storage-ability potential (i.e. lowest moisture content of 2.50%) and energy content (467.30 Kcal), but had lowest values in magnesium (57.31 mg/100g) and phosphorus content (64.18 mg/100g). The 100% wheat flour cookies (CTLC) led in carbohydrate content (63.35%), magnesium content (64.71 mg/100g) and phosphorus content (69.28 mg/100g) but lagged behind in ash content (1.70%), crude fat content (1.25%), protein content (11.75%), iron content (2.45%), vitamin A (2.250 µg/g), vitamin B1 (0.047 mg/100g), vitamin B2 (0.073 mg/100g), vitamin B3 (0.250 mg/100g), vitamin B6 (0.290 mg/100g), vitamin C (13.530 mg/100g) and spread factor (41.47). PWYC (cookies of composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% heat moisture treated white yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) recorded lowest values in crude fat content (17.80%) and energy value (441.30 Kcal); whereas PTYC (cookies of composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% heat moisture treated trifoliate yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) made lowest values in crude fibre content (1.60%) and calcium (117.31 mg/100g). NWYC (cookies of composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% native white yam starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour).led in crude fibre content (1.73%) and general acceptability (8.07) while CSPC (cookies of composite flour of 85% wheat flour: 10% acetylated starch: 5% Moringa oleifera seed flour) scored lowest in general acceptability (6.20) ItemGrowth Performance and In vivo Nutrients Digestibility of Growing Yankasa Ram Lambs Fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Sesame Residue(Journal of Animal Health and Production, 2021-06) Adeola, Emmanuel A; Garba, Yusuf; Baba, MohammedThe study was carried out to evaluate the effect of including sesame residue (SR) in the diets of Yankasa ram lambs on feed intake, body weight gain, and nutrients digestibility. Twelve Yankasa ram lambs (initial body weight of 20.08 ± 3.08kg) were allotted to three dietary treatments containing 0, 20 and 30% SR (A, B and C) respectively. A completely randomized design was used for the study which lasted twelve weeks. The results revealed that animals fed 30% inclusion level had higher dry matter, nitrogen free extract and ether extract intakes, which varied among the treatments. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibilities were higher for the lambs fed 0% SR. Inclusion of sesame residue up to 30% in the diet of growing Yankasa lambs improved nutrients intake without adverse effects on growth performance. It is thus recommended that sesame residue could be incorporated in the diets of growing Yankasa lambs at 30% inclusion level for reduced feed cost in Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. ItemGrowth performance and in vivo nutrients digestibility of growing yankasa ram lambs fed diets containing graded levels of sesame residue(Nexus Academic Publishers, 2021-02-17) Adeola, Emmanuel A.; Garba, Yusuf; Baba, MohammedThe study was carried out to evaluate the effect of including sesame residue (SR) in the diets of Yankasa ram lambs on feed intake, body weight gain, and nutrients digestibility. Twelve Yankasa ram lambs (initial body weight of 20.08 ± 3.08kg) were allotted to three dietary treatments containing 0, 20 and 30% SR (A, B and C) respectively. A completely randomized design was used for the study which lasted twelve weeks. The results revealed that animals fed 30% inclusion level had higher dry matter, nitrogen free extract and ether extract intakes, which varied among the treatments. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibilities were higher for the lambs fed 0% SR. Inclusion of sesame residue up to 30% in the diet of growing Yankasa lambs improved nutrients intake without adverse effects on growth performance. It is thus recommended that sesame residue could be incorporated in the diets of growing Yankasa lambs at 30% inclusion level for reduced feed cost in Sudan Savanna agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. ItemRetailers’ knowledge and practices on the storage and handling of certified vegetable seeds: A case study of the Ashanti Region, Ghana(Elsevier, 2021-09-23) Adom, Johnson Antwi; Dzidzienyo, Daniel Kwadjo; Ofosu-Anim, JohnPoor seed storage and handling practices adversely affect seed quality. To investigate retailers’ knowledge and practices in handling and storing certified vegetable seeds to ensure seed quality maintenance, a survey was conducted with a questionnaire and a thermo-hygrometer in the Ashanti Region. Results indicated retailers were aware of the factors that affected seed quality during storage. Retailers stored seeds at room temperature, and repackaged seeds in smaller sizes due to challenges like lack of cold storage, lack of credits, seed pricing and seed package sizes. Retailers require cold storage facilities to ensure continuous supply of quality seeds to farmers. ItemSorghum Production Constraints, Trait Preferences, and Strategies to Combat Drought in Tanzania(MDPI, 2021-11-23) Mwamahonje, Andekelile; Eleblu, John Saviour Yaw; Ofori, KwadwoSorghum is an important food crop for people in drought-prone areas of the world. The production in Tanzania has been ≤1 t ha−1 for a decade. The study was conducted in Iramba, Ikungi, and Kongwa districts to identify factors influencing the sorghum production, adoption rate, and strategies to address drought in Tanzania. The study involved 240 respondents for individual interviews and focus group discussions. Thirty respondents participated in individual interviews while ten farmers participated in the focus group discussion per village. Our study found that birds, poor soil fertility, and drought were the major constraints across the study districts. Drought tolerance, high yield, and early maturity were the most preferred traits by farmers across the study areas. Farmers addressed drought stress in sorghum by practicing early planting early maturing varieties in November and using drought-tolerant varieties. However, most farmers failed to name the diseases and pests affecting sorghum. This study highlights basic information for plant breeders to incorporate traits preferred by farmers in breeding programs when developing new sorghum varieties for sustainable production. The study shows the importance of involving farmers to identify the problems and solutions of sorghum production to increase the adoption rate. ItemEvaluation of Traits’ Performance Contributing to Drought Tolerance in Sorghum(MDPI, 2021-08-26) Feyissa, Tileye; Mwamahonje, Andekelile; Eleblu, John Saviour YawSorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is an important food crop for people in semiaridAfrica. The crop is affected by post-ﬂowering drought; therefore, the study was conducted to screentraits contributing to drought tolerance using BC2F4sorghum genotypes in stressed and unstressedwater conditions in a split-plot design. Water stress (0 mm/day) was applied at post-ﬂowering toplant maturity in water-stressed treatment. The genotype SE438 produced the highest grain yield(2.65 ton ha−1) in water-stressed environment and NA316C yielded highest (3.42 ton ha−1) underwell-watered (7 mm/day) environment. There were signiﬁcant differences of most traits evaluated atp < 0.01 across environments. The mean squares of traits for genotypes by environments revealedinteractions at p < 0.05 and p < 0.01. The indices geometric mean productivity (GMP) and meanproductivity (MP) were highly correlated with yield under well-watered (YP) and water-stressedcondition (YS) and each other. The ﬁrst principal axis (PC1) explained 59.1% of the total variation.It is the best indicator of yield potential and drought tolerance of sorghum genotypes in this study.Therefore, further improvement is needed to strengthen drought tolerance and yield in sorghum. ItemFarmers’ Perception on Production Constraints, Trait Preference and Variety Selection of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Kenya(African Interdisciplinary Studies Association, 2021-06-30) Kosgei, Alice; Kimurto, Paul; Gaur, PooranChickpea production is mainly practiced on a small scale with productivity per hectare lower than the world average and a relatively slow adoption rate. This study investigated farmers’ production constraints, preferred traits, and selection criteria for specific varieties. A participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) through Focus Group Discussions (FGD) was conducted in Bomet and Embu counties. The direct ranking was used to identify farmers’ variety preference. Data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Farmers indicated that major production constraints were pests and disease, drought, and lack of early-maturing varieties. The preferred varieties were ICCV 97105, ICCV 92944, and ICCV 00108 due to high yielding, drought tolerant, early maturing, and pest and disease resistance. Farmers also had a higher preference for Desi than Kabuli types. From the study, farmers have preferences and breeders should aim at developing varieties with multiple traits for increased production and adoption. ItemDrought Tolerance and Application of Marker-Assisted Selection in Sorghum(MDPI, 2021-11-30) Mwamahonje, Andekelile; Eleblu, John Saviour Yaw; Ofori, KwadwoSorghum is an important staple food crop in drought prone areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, which is characterized by erratic rainfall with poor distribution. Sorghum is a drought-tolerant crop by nature with reasonable yield compared to other cereal crops, but such abiotic stress adversely affects the productivity. Some sorghum varieties maintain green functional leaves under post-anthesis drought stress referred to as stay-green, which makes it an important crop for food and nutritional security. Notwithstanding, it is difficult to maintain consistency of tolerance over time due to climate change, which is caused by human activities. Drought in sorghum is addressed by several approaches, for instance, breeding drought-tolerant sorghum using conventional and molecular technologies. The challenge with conventional methods is that they depend on phenotyping stay-green, which is complex in sorghum, as it is constituted by multiple genes and environmental effects. Marker assisted selection, which involves the use of DNA molecular markers to map QTL associated with stay-green, has been useful to supplement stay-green improvement in sorghum. It involves QTL mapping associated with the stay-green trait for introgression into the senescent sorghum varieties through marker-assisted backcrossing by comparing with phenotypic field data. Therefore, this review discusses mechanisms of drought tolerance in sorghum focusing on physiological, morphological, and biochemical traits. In addition, the review discusses the application of marker-assisted selection techniques, including marker-assisted backcrossing, QTL mapping, and QTL pyramiding for addressing post-flowering drought in sorghum. ItemAnalysis of Genotype-Environment Interaction and Yield Stability of Introduced Upland Rice in the Groundnut Basin Agroclimatic Zone of Senegal(Hindawi, 2021-10-28) Kanfany, Ghislain; Ayenan, Mathieu Anatole Tele; Zoclanclounon, Yedomon Ange BovysIdentification of highly performing varieties under Senegalese environment is crucial to sustain rice production. Genotype-environment interaction and stability performance on the grain yield of ten upland rice genotypes were investigated across 11 environments in Senegal during the rainy seasons of 2016 and 2017 to identify adapted varieties. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three replications at each environment. Data on grain yield were recorded and analyzed using the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) model. The combined analysis of variance revealed that the grain yield was significantly affected by environment (67.9%), followed by genotype × environment (G × E) interaction (23.6%) and genotype (8.5%). The first two principal component axes were highly significant with 37.5 and 26% of the total observed G × E interaction variation, respectively. GGE biplot grouped the environments into four potential megaenvironments. Based on the yield stability index parameter and ranking GGE biplot, NERICA 8 and ART3-7-L9P8-1-B-B-1 were stable and high-yielding varieties compared to the local check NERICA 6. These varieties should be proposed for cultivation in order to sustain the rice production in the southern part of the groundnut basin of Senegal and used as parental lines in rice breeding program for grain yield improvement. ItemYield, Yield Components and Nutritional Traits Values of Biofortified Sorghum Hybrids in Mali(Macrothink Institute, 2021-11-17) Maiga, Alfousseiny Mahamane; Nebié, Baloua; Diallo, Abdoulaye G.To assess the adaptation, yield potential, nutrient content and to identify the traits contributing directly and indirectly to yield increase, a two years’ study was conducted in four locations. Thus, a total of 28 F1 hybrids from two females and 14 male parents, were developed and used in this study along with the parents and four commercial hybrids. Seven (7) hybrids were identified with grain yield ranging from 4015 to 4624 kg-1ha; heading from 64 to 92 days; iron content from 8.63 to 91.15 ppm; Zinc content from 8.14 to 28.71 ppm; lysine content from 2.73 to 5.61 mg/100g; threonine content from 2.50 to 6.28 mg/100g. For both phenotypic and genotypic levels, a significant correlation on grain yield through plant height, panicle length, primary branch per panicle, grain number per panicle and number of whorls per panicle were found. Based on the path analysis, positive and significant direct and indirect effect of correlation were observed in this work for a cycle, grain quality, panicle length, primary branch per panicle, grain number per panicle and number of whorls per panicle at the phenotypic level. ItemScalable Sparse Testing Genomic Selection Strategy for Early Yield Testing Stage(Frontiers, 2021-06-22) Atanda, Sikiru Adeniyi; Olsen, Michael; Crossa, JoseTo enable a scalable sparse testing genomic selection (GS) strategy at preliminary yield trials in the CIMMYT maize breeding program, optimal approaches to incorporate genotype by environment interaction (GEI) in genomic prediction models are explored. Two cross-validation schemes were evaluated: CV1, predicting the genetic merit of new bi-parental populations that have been evaluated in some environments and not others, and CV2, predicting the genetic merit of half of a bi-parental population that has been phenotyped in some environments and not others using the coefficient of determination (CDmean) to determine optimized subsets of a full-sib family to be evaluated in each environment. We report similar prediction accuracies in CV1 and CV2, however, CV2 has an intuitive appeal in that all bi-parental populations have representation across environments, allowing efficient use of information across environments. It is also ideal for building robust historical data because all individuals of a full-sib family have phenotypic data, albeit in different environments. Results show that grouping of environments according to similar growing/management conditions improved prediction accuracy and reduced computational requirements, providing a scalable, parsimonious approach to multi-environmental trials and GS in early testing stages. We further demonstrate that complementing the full-sib calibration set with optimized historical data results in improved prediction accuracy for the cross-validation schemes.